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Nutrition

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NUTRITION

Balance diet

For every physical activity, the body requires energy and the amount depends on the duration and type of activity.

Energy is measured in Calories and is obtained from the body stores or the food we eat.

Glycogen is the main source of fuel used by the muscles to enable you to undertake both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. With low glycogen stores, you will feel constantly tired, training performance will be lower and you will be more prone to injury and illness.

Eating a balanced diet is another key to sports nutrition.

The nutrients are:

  • Proteins - essential for growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues

  • Fats  one of the  source of energy

  • Carbohydrates - our main source of energy

  • Minerals - those inorganic elements occurring in the body and which are critical to its normal functions

  • Vitamins - water and fat soluble vitamins play important roles in many chemical processes in the body

  • Water - 60% of the human body is water  and this is essential for  normal body function - as a vehicle for carrying other nutrients .

  • Roughage - the fibrous indigestible portion of our diet essential to health of the digestive system

  • The right combination of fuel (calories) from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats gives you energy for top performance. Balance diet includes 60% to 70% carbohydrates, (sugar, sweets, bread, cakes), 30% Fats (dairy products, oil)  ,20-30% Protein (eggs, milk, meat, poultry, fish)

Daily Calorie Requirement

The number of calories the body consumes in a day is different for every person.  Average daily a person eat 2000 cal.Height, weight, gender, age and activity level all affect your caloric needs. There are three main factors involved in calculating how many calories your body needs per day:

           basal metabolic rate

           physical activity

           thermic effect of food

Men require more calories per day than women. Younger people need to consume more calories each day than older people. Pregnant or lactating women need a higher calorie intake. Most people will lose weight when consuming around 1500 calories per day.

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates should provide about 60% to 70% of your daily calories

The most important fuel source, carbohydrates are found in fruits, vegetables, pastas, breads, cereals, rice, and other foods.

In our body sugar and starch present in carbohydrates are converted to energy which gives you power for high-intensity, short-duration activities.

After whole of carbohydrate consumption during exercise ,  consumption of fat and protein start taking place after  repeated high-intensity, short-duration exercises, or  in multiple events or training sessions in a single day.

Eat carbohydrates for at least several days before exercise/competition to start with glycogen-loaded muscles.

Eat more carbohydrates during exercise/competition that lasts more than an hour to replenish energy and delay fatigue

Proteins

Proteins should provide approximately 12% to 15% of your daily calories. Proteins are found in meats, fish, poultry, eggs, beans, nuts, dairy products, and other foods.

Proteins give your body power to build new tissues and fluids, among other functions. Your body cannot store extra protein, so it burns it for energy or converts it to fat. The amount of protein an athlete needs depends in part on level of fitness; exercise type, intensity, and duration; total daily calories; and carbohydrate intake..

Physically active people need more protein compared with those who don't exercise. You also need more protein when you start an exercise program.

Athletes often burn protein for fuel, as do body builders and other athletes who perform intense, strength-building activities.

Your body burns more protein if you don't consume enough calories to maintain body weight which usually seen after  eat too less or doing exercise too much.

Your body may use protein for energy if you exercise with low levels of muscle glycogen or if you do repeated training sessions without eating more carbohydrates.

When you start with enough muscle glycogen, protein supplies about 5% of energy; otherwise it may supply up to 10%.

Fats

Fats should provide no more than about 20% to 30% of daily calories..

Saturated fats come from animal-based foods, such as meats, eggs, milk, and cheese.

Unsaturated fats are found in vegetable products, such corn oil. Your body needs small amounts of fat for certain critical functions and as an alternative energy source to glucose.

Unsaturatedd

Saturated

Sunflower oil

Beef

Olive Oil

Bacon

Rice Oil

Cheese

Nuts

Butter

Rapeseed Oil

Biscuits

Oily fish - Sardines

But eating too much fat is associated with heart disease, some cancers, and other major problems.

Also, if you eat too much fat, it probably means that you don't get enough carbohydrates.

Body uses fat for energy depends on the intensity and duration of exercise.. Fat is the primary fuel source when you are at rest or exercise at low to moderate intensity.

As you increase exercise intensity, your body uses more carbohydrates for fuel. If your body uses up its glycogen supply and you keep exercising, your body will burn fat for energy, decreasing exercise intensity.

General Guidelines for athletes during athletic events :

  1. Eat a meal high in carbohydrates..

  2. Take solid foods 3 to 4 hours before an event. Take liquids 2 to 3 hours before an event.

  3. Choose easily digested  foods and avoid fried foods.

  4. Avoid junk foods/drinks within 1 hour of the event.

  5. .

Calcium

Calcium is a naturally occurring mineral that is needed by the body to build and maintain strong bones and teeth.  As calcium is not produced  in the body, it must be absorbed from a person's dietary intake. Calcium is shed from the body in skin, nails, hair, sweat, urine, and feces. When a person does not get enough calcium through their diet, the body must break down bone to obtain the mineral..

Throughout life, bones go through a process known as remodeling, in which small amounts of old bone are removed and new bone is formed in its place. After 40 yrs of age  more bone is lost than gained.

Women are vulnerable to osteoporosis as Bone loss accelerates after menopause , which develops slowly over many years.

Calcium can be obtained from a variety of foods. Milk and dairy products are the biggest sources of calcium. Green leafy vegetables are another source of calcium. Therefore, eating a balanced diet with a variety of foodss is very important.

Recommended Calcium and Vitamin D Intake

Calcium

Life Stage Group

Recommended Daily Calcium Intake

Women and men 9 to 18 years

1,300 mg

Women and men 19 to 50 years

1,000 mg

Women and men 51 to 70 years

1,200 mg

Women and men > 70 years

1,200 mg

Pregnant or nursing women 14 to 18 years

1,300 mg

Pregnant or nursing women 19 to 50 years

1,000 mg

Vitamin D**

Life Stage Group

Recommended Daily Vitamin D Intake

Men and women 9 to 50 years with limited sun exposure

1,300 IU

Men and women 51 to 70 years with limited sun exposure

1,000 IU

Men and women > 70 with limited sun exposure

1,300 IU

** People who spend adequate amounts of time in the sun do not need dietary vitamin D intake.

Dietary Sources of Calciumm

Yogurt  ,whole milk, skim milk, cheese,  tofu,   almonds,  kidney beans,  ice creams,   plain hamburger.

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